Where do I even begin...
Of course Bush and his team (and their allies in Europe and elsewhere) have intelligence. In fact, our new "ally" Pakistan has said it has a lot of intelligence on Afghanistan that it will share with us. Additionally, suppose Bush knows that there are X terrorist cells in such-and-such places. Do you think he's going to go on TV and say so? This is not a one-man operation here -- you have the FBI, CIA, NSA, armed forces, NATO allies, and others working on the case. You can be sure they have accumulated a lot of intelligence already.
No, this terrorist attack was not the end of the world. Well, actually it was for the 1000s of dead and their families. But how many attacks do we need to suffer before retaliation is warranted? Bombings at embassies in Africa, the USS Cole, the WTC, the Pentagon, the barracks in Somalia (if I remember right)? Should we wait until a suitcase nuke detonates in YOUR neighborhood before we punish these bastards? We should have gone after Bin Laden and his cohorts back in the 1990s when he called for jihad against the United States (and the rest of the civilized world, for that matter). Now we're paying the price.
And besides, if Bush really wanted to drop bombs for the sake of dropping bombs, he could have done that on Tuesday. There are already troops and a couple aircraft carriers over there in the Persian Gulf.
As far as the experiences the Russians and British had in the hills of Afghanistan are concerned... Yes, you are 100% correct, they were creamed, and I suspect as you do that the Allies in the coming weeks/months/years will have serious casualties. But think back for a moment what Reagan did to Lybia -- he bombed the hell out of the place until Kadafi <sp> had enough. Heck, we had to kill the man's daughter before he cried uncle. Even today Kadafi is basically off the radar. If we drop a lot bombs all over the Taliban's HQ and on Kabul I feel very confident it will be effective. They'll hand over any and all terrorists we demand. Violence is the only language that these people understand.
If we don't eradicate terrorists now they will keep coming and coming. These people don't fear death and they won't stop until they are all dead, or we're dead, whichever comes first. You can't reason with someone who doesn't respond to reason.