We have a Labrador retriever who has never cared about storms and thunder (thank goodness), but I know exactly what you mean about smoke detectors with low batteries!
We have a few detectors downstairs, and 1 upstairs...the one upstairs began chirping. We couldnt hear it, but the dog sure could. He went bat-shit crazy for 2 days before we realized what it was. (we dont go upstairs that often)